More than half of all gold that has been mined to date is in the hands of governments and central banks. Gold, which has been of great importance both as a guarantee of paper money emission in every country and as an international payment instrument, preserves its value in the eyes of metalworkers. Generally, silver, palladium, copper, or platinum alloys of gold are widely used in jewelry. So do you know how jewelry is made from gold?
To make jewelry, small pieces of gold-containing quartz are pulped in grinding mills to extract gold from metallic gold-containing ores. In this paste, gold particles are dispersed in colloidal form. The product here is decomposed by the amalgam technique. It is processed with a very dilute sodium cyanide solution by increasing the concentration of the amalgamated dough. Sodium cyanide reacts with gold to form a complex compound. The gold in the complex compound is precipitated with metallic zinc. Materials other than gold and silver in this precipitate are removed by the Kal method. Silver also dissolves under the effect of nitric and sulfuric acid, leaving pure gold.
Gold ores are classified as “metallic gold-containing ores” and “ores containing gold in their compound”. Gold has +1 and +3 valence in its compounds. It can be easily reduced to the metallic form of all its compounds. The +1 valence compounds of gold, such as AuCl, Au2S, AuCN, are unstable in aqueous solutions and are oxidized to +3 or reduced to metallic. However, aqueous solutions of the complex salts given by sodium and potassium cyanide can be prepared and used in industry, especially in the coating. Organic salts are also known and unstable.
The +3 valence compounds of gold are generally stable. AuCl3 is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether, used in photography and coating. AuBr3 is soluble in alcohol and ether. Used in some chemical analysis. Gold hydroxide, Au (OH) 3, is a light-sensitive brown powder. It is insoluble in water, soluble in hydrochloric acid and other acids. It is used in gilding and coating. Organic compounds of gold are generally dialkyl salts. These salts are in the form of R2AuX. Here R is the organic molecule, X is halogen, sulfur, nitrogen, or oxygen.
Gold, which has high electrical conductivity (after silver and copper) and does not easily react chemically, is mostly used in the electrical and electronic industries for coating connections, terminals, printed circuits, transistors, and semiconductor systems. Thin gold plates, which can reflect approximately 98% of the infrared rays falling on it, provide protection from harmful rays in the eye holes in the helmets of the spacesuit and the temperature control on the surfaces of artificial satellites.
The use of thin sheets of gold in the windows of large office buildings is not only due to aesthetics but also from the fact that this reflective surface greatly reduces the heat exchange with the environment. It is a very small amount of gold that is colloidally dispersed in the glassy mass that gives garnet glass its bright red color, but people mostly use it in jewelry and ornaments.
How Gold Is Made: Before Jewelry Making
Although gold is a very valuable element; It has bright and yellow color properties, melting at 1064 degrees Celsius. The symbol for the element is AU. It can be found freely in nature. It can be processed very easily. It is very durable as well as the best conductors. The reason Gold is valuable is that it does not rust. Therefore it was used as wealth.
Like many elements, Gold is thought to be formed in the universe by the reactions of high temperatures as a result of star explosions. The new stars containing the elements formed and the pieces that broke off from these stars scattered the Gold element around. It is also among the theories that one of these published pieces fell to the world and brought this element to the world.
Gold, which is liquid in the magma layer, is separated from the magma in a liquid form as a result of earthquakes and other geological movements, and it fills between the rocks that are fragmented by the effect of pressure. When these spots start to cool, the sediments solidify and gold-rich rocks are formed. These places are called mineral deposits.
The density of factors such as water and wind in the stream beds causes the stones to sand and the Gold to appear prominently. For this reason, the possibility of finding gold is much more likely in stream beds. However, almost most of the varieties used and evaluated today are obtained from Rocks and rocks. Generally, these substances are separated to obtain Gold.
The gold mine has attracted the attention of human beings because of its features such as being freely found in nature and being easily processed, and it has preserved its safe harbor feature since ancient times. Gold is indicated on the periodic table with the symbol AU and, with a mass weight of 197, is a soft, machinable, bright, and yellow-colored element with a high density compared to other metals.
Gold begins to melt at 1064 degrees and reaches a boiling temperature of 2856 degrees. The Latin spelling of the word gold is Aurum. “Aurum” means shining, shining. It never rusts and tarnishes as it is not affected by air and water.
While the purity of gold is expressed as a percentage in the chemical field, it is expressed in carats in the jewelry industry. Accordingly, 24-carat gold bullion refers to 100% pure gold, 22-carat gold bullion refers to 91.6% pure gold, 18-carat gold bullion refers to 75% pure gold, and 14-carat gold refers to 58.5% pure gold. Different colored alloys are obtained by adding different metals to gold. With this method, gold is produced and offered for sale in the form of bullion for an investment, or jewelry as well as earrings, necklaces, and bracelets in different settings.
Gold is produced in the form of 24 carat gold bars, 1 gram gold bullion, 2.5 grams gold bullion, 5 grams of gold bullion, 10 grams of gold bullion, 20 grams of gold bullion, 50 grams of gold bars, 100 grams of gold bars, 250 grams of gold bars, 500 grams of gold bars, and 1 kilogram of gold bullions. You can purchase gold bullion at the most favorable and advantageous prices listed above at online stores.
Why Gold Is Used to Make Jewelry?
Gold is a soft, bright yellow chemical element represented in chemistry by the symbol Au (from the Latin Aurum (glow-shining)). The properties of gold, such as its bright yellow color, its resistance to acids, its free availability in nature, and its easy processing, have attracted the attention of people since ancient times.
Gold is a very heavy metal that catches the eye with its bright yellow color and shine. Moreover, since it is a very stable element that does not react easily, it is not affected by air and water. Therefore, it never rusts, tarnishes, and dulls. Another feature is that it is very soft in its pure state; Therefore, it can be easily forged and shaped. With all these properties, gold has been considered one of the most precious metals throughout history.
Gold is found in low concentrations in large parts of the world. It constitutes an estimated 0.001 ppm (one millionth) of the earth. Trace amounts can be found in copper and lead minerals as well as calaverite (Au2Te4), silvanite (Au2Ag2Te6), and krennerite (Au8Te6) minerals. It is found in volcanic quartz, in the sandy beds of streams, in the form of dust and ingots.
As of the end of 2006, it is estimated that the gold mined throughout history is 158,000 tons. A similar view was quoted in the January 2009 issue of National Geographic magazine, “Only 161,000 tons of gold have been mined throughout history, barely enough to fill two Olympic pools.” It found its place with its interpretation. The volume of said amount of gold is equal to a cube with sides 20.28 meters long. If an ounce is calculated at $ 1000, the value of the cube will be about 5.2 trillion dollars.
According to the records known in history, during the time of the Egyptian rulers around 3200 BC, gold was used as money by drawing in equal length bars in mints. Au comes from the Latin word Aurum. The remains of gold jewelry belonging to 2000 BC were found in Peru, and it is known that the Aztecs and Incas in the American continent were also fond of gold. Among the ancient civilizations that gave importance to gold; It would be appropriate to count the Greeks, Persians, Macedonians, Assyrians, Sumerians, and Lydians.
In 550 BC, the Lydian King Krezos minted gold as money (coin) and trade increased with the minting of gold as money. Cities have grown rich and the world has entered a new era of prosperity. It is known that the Scythians and Sarmatians (1000 BC) were advanced in making gold buckles, which are about national heroes. Between the fourth and ninth centuries, they gave the best examples of golden bowl and vase work. Some of these works are exhibited in the Morgan collection, New York.
How Jewelry Is Made: A General Guide
There are different methods of shaping any metallic or non-metallic material. The chosen item also determines the method. The excess is removed from materials such as marble, wood, avocado, coral using a chisel. Plastic materials such as wax and clay are kneaded by hand. Sculptures made of clay in the 30s were very fashionable. It was shaped by pouring into multi-piece, chalk-made molds. After drying, it was cooked, dipped in molten paraffin, and polished with a copper powder suspension. Galvanized was then applied to the surface that gained conductivity in this way.
There are two different methods when it comes to metals. In the first, molten metal is poured into molds and different methods such as cuttlefish, compression, wax, silicon are used. The other method is based on the plastic deformation they undergo when force is applied to metals.
The oldest method of metalworking is hammering. With the advancement of technology, manual hammering has been replaced by pressing with machines. All metals with a long plastic zone can be hot hammered before their melting point when heated. Platinum can be easily processed, especially when it is white in incandescent color. Iron can be processed between 800 and 1200 ° C according to the carbon content it contains. Cuttings can be brittle at low temperatures.
The importance of temperature can be given by the example of glass. Red-colored glass loses its fragility and becomes malleable. Since copper is brittle when hot, it is forged when it is cold. However, it can be traded around 950 ° C. Some metals go directly from solid to liquid. Aluminum and some light alloys can be processed both hot and cold. When the material can be processed both hot and cold, one of them is preferred in special cases.
The choice depends on factors such as shape, thickness, etc. In hammering, the indispensable element is covering. It must be at least a hundred times heavier than the material to be processed. A wooden base should be used to reduce vibrations and noise with its fullness. Whether the product to be obtained is made of pure metal or mixed with materials such as stone, pearl, coral, ivory, seashell, coating, etc., the jeweler starts from metal or alloy. First, it forms the metal skeleton, in the final product, it can be more or less in percentage.
In the hands of the first jewelers, metals were found in nature. Today, it is connected to the work from ingots that are refined and poured in different ways. These ingots allow the semi-finished products to reach the final product to be processed by hand or by machine. The first semi-products are obtained in rolling or profile benches and then put into different shapes.
Over the years, the jeweler’s workshop has developed continuously. This development continues today. Scientific and technological developments, changes in society, and traditions provide this development. As a result, subsidiary industries were born. For example, while jewelers used to manufacture their own tools, now these tools are produced by specialized organizations.
The jeweler also had to know how to refine metals, prepare their alloys, create weld solders. Today, all these extra jobs are carried out by specialized organizations. However, some operations can only be performed with hand-held and paternal tools. Mass production, which is characteristic of today’s jewelry, has greatly reduced the number of artist jewelers.
Many details used in silverware are still obtained by pouring molten metal into molds. These are then brought together to create the final product. In some products, melting alone may be sufficient. The strength of mechanically processed objects is higher than objects obtained by melting and whose surfaces are always more or less rough.
When the strength is the same, weight, and therefore cost advantage is provided. Retouching is easier and less, and the amount of material to be sculpted is also low. A person who works with the scientific method knows how to obtain a result he has obtained again. So he can restore the medium.
The Formation of Gold Mine
Gold, a precious element, has a bright yellow color. Freely found in nature, gold is expressed with the symbol “AU”. It is valuable because it does not rust and is seen as a means of wealth. Easily processed, gold is very durable due to its being a good conductor. Since it is a stable element, it does not react easily. Here is how gold is formed and revealed, we have compiled all the details for you.
In its pure state, gold is very soft and easy to shape. Considered one of the most precious elements throughout history, gold has managed to attract people’s attention since ancient times. There are many theories about the formation of gold and a new theory is added every day. Today, gold is obtained from rocks.
Gold, known to have been created as a result of the explosion of gamma rays, was formed as a result of the collision between two neutron stars. It should be noted that the collision of two neutron stars with each other results in an enormous burst of energy. While there were very few elements on earth at the beginning of the universe, the energy of big stars affected the formation of elements such as gold.
Factors such as wind and water in the stream beds enabled the gold to be unearthed. Materials in rocks and rocks are separated to obtain gold. Having a chemical structure, gold is considered valuable by everyone. Its scarcity in nature and its unique beauty make gold considered valuable from the past to the present. As a result of the collision of two neutron stars, silver and mercury have emerged as well as gold.
Gold is separated from materials obtained by mechanical or chemical processes. Magma, which is the molten rock, stratified after a while and as a result, gold was formed. It is extremely difficult to extract as well as find gold. Gold separation is applied to rocks containing gold. Gold mines are created by going deep into the ground.
All valuable elements such as gold occur deep in rocks. The formation of gold deposits depends on the flow of mineral-rich waters into the cracks. The occurrence of earthquakes causes more gold to rise to the surface. As a constantly renewing metal, gold has no end. It takes hundreds of thousands of years for gold to form.
What Do Gold Fineness and Values Mean?
Due to its bright yellow color, free availability in nature, easy processing, and durability, gold has been among the favorite metals of people since ancient times. While it was used abundantly in the production of various items and coins in ancient times, today it finds use as jewelry and in different sectors due to its high price.
Gold is also used in some electrical circuits due to its very good electrical and heat conduction properties. Being a very stable element makes gold a metal that is not affected by acids. Gold, which does not oxidize, darken or fade in color, has been used in many areas for centuries as a very precious metal due to all these features.
Gold, which is a yellow and soft element, is not 100% pure in nature, but it has a purity of 99.99%, which is a value close to this. Copper, silver, nickel, and zinc are among the elements that are mostly mixed with gold. Mixing these elements with gold results in a more durable alloy.
On the other hand, color changes occur in the alloy according to the type and amount of the elements mixed with gold. For example; While green gold is obtained by mixing gold with pure silver, white gold is obtained by mixing gold with platinum and nickel, red gold is obtained by mixing with copper, and yellow gold is obtained from its mixture with zinc.
Gold Fineness Calculation
While the concept of% (percentage) is used in chemistry related to the purity of gold, the term “carat” is used for the purity of gold in jewelry. These concepts are briefly expressed with the letter “K”. For example, the phrase “14 K” on a gold ring means that the gold is 14 carats.
In order to calculate the setting of an item made of gold, the fineness value must first be found. The Fineness value is briefly explained as the evaluation of gold purity over 1000. In order to calculate this value, the pure gold mass in the material made of gold is divided by the total mass and multiplied by 1000.
For example, to find the fineness value of 80 grams of pure gold in a 100-gram bracelet, the formula 80 gr / 100 gr x 1000 is used. With this calculation, the purity of the bracelet is found as 800 fineness. Since pure gold is considered to be 1000 fineness and 24 carats, 1 carat is equal to 41.66 fineness. As a result, the fineness value must be divided by 41.66 in order to reveal purity. In this way, the purity of gold can be understood. The purity and fineness values of the most used gold settings in the market are listed as follows:
24-carat gold is 99.99% pure and its fineness value is 999.9.
22-carat gold is 91.6% pure and its fineness value is 916.
18 karat gold is 75% pure and its fineness value is 750.
14-carat gold is 58.5% pure and its fineness value is 585.
As gold is a precious metal, it also appears as a commodity traded all over the world. With the opening of the wedding season, gold prices may rise. The industrial need for gold also affects gold prices. The use of gold as jewelry is in high demand, especially in countries such as China and India.
However, the prices of 22-carat bracelets and 14-carat gold are never the same. Although gold prices are affected by various factors, the most important factor determining the selling price of gold is the degree of purity. The lower the setting of gold, the lower its price. However, a gold setting with a low setting does not cause a problem in use.
The History of Gold Jewelry
Like all precious metals, gold has been an indicator of power, sovereignty, and wealth throughout history. It decorated the thrones and crowns of the kings and sultans, preserving its value and surviving to the present day. Objects and jewels made of gold, which are estimated to be found on the surface of the earth, were first found in Southern Iraq around 3000 BC. In 2000 BC, the first gold jewelry, ornaments, and adornments were found around Peru.
Gold has been one of the most preferred metals by people since ancient times. The main reasons for preference are; It is soft, easy to process, durable, does not lose its brightness, and is scarce. Gold began to be processed and used around 3500 BC. Among the first to use civilizations such as Egypt, Greek, Assyrian, Sumerian and Lydian can be counted.
The use of the Sumerians increased as they were able to control the setting of gold with additives such as silver and copper and improved the processing method. Egypt, on the other hand, was the civilization that extracted and worked the most gold in Mesopotamia and its surroundings. The gold-plated throne of Tutankhamen in 1300 BC is the best example of world gold art. These civilizations used gold in the production of the throne, crown, armor, jewelry, money, and various objects.
For the first time in history, Egyptians used gold, which was highly valued by the Aztec and Inca civilizations and used by the Greeks, Assyrians, and Sumerians in jewelry making, as well as in objects such as vases and bowls. In addition to using gold as an alloy, the Egyptians, who knew jewelry embroidery, cut gold into strips and used it as money for the first time. In 550 BC, Lydian King Krezos minted gold as money (coin), and thus trade increased. Cities have grown rich and the world has entered a new era of prosperity.
Gold, which was used to pay the state debt in the Roman period, caused great gold rush movements in the 1800s, and later started to be used in the industrial field, has reached today without losing its importance after centuries of adventure.
In the 12th century AD, Venice became the important gold market of that period. In the 1511s, explorers were commissioned by the king of Spain to find gold resources. In 1717, gold prices were fixed by the London Mint, and the British currency was tied to a certain amount of gold, and it continued in this way for 200 years. Until 1971, America continued to print money according to the amount of gold available in the country. With the abandonment of the gold-based coinage system of America, this system came to an end in the world.
In the 1800s, gold was also used as an industrial material. Thanks to its good conductivity of electricity and heat and its ability to reflect rays, gold has also found use in industry. It is known that large migrations for gold started in 1849. The first major gold migration took place in California. However, the gold mined in crumbs in America was found in large pieces in Australia in 1850. In 1886, gold was found for the first time in South Africa. The last gold migration took place in Alaska in 1898. The 1800s are a period when gold is highly valued due to migrations due to the increase in gold demand.
The Man in Gold Dress, 6 meters long, 60 meters in diameter, and 2500 years old Golden Dress Armor, which was found during construction in Kazakhstan in 1969, is one of the most important examples of gold processing art in history. There are more than 3 thousand golden triangular plates with horse and bird motifs.
Today, besides jewelry production, gold is used in electron microscopes, food decoration, aircraft cockpit glasses, high conductivity (it is the 3rd metal with the highest conductivity), and durability in the electronics industry. Gold is a dense mine. The weight of gold, which is about two feet wide, long and high, is about 1 ton. Its melting point is 1063 C and its boiling temperature is 2600 C. It can be processed very easily due to its softness and other physical properties.
Pure gold refers to gold with no other metals mixed. The unit of measure used for the purity of gold in carats. Pure gold has a purity of 24 K 999.9. While gold is being processed, different substances such as copper, nickel, and silver are added in certain proportions and its hardness is increased. For example, we can say that 18K gold contains 6K additives. In the 19th century, the thousand-thousand system application began for gold purity. Accordingly, with the logic of 24 K = 1000 fineness, 1000/24 * 18 = 750 fineness expresses 18K.